A question that is often asked at this crop development stage is whether stress now will reduce final yield potential even if rainfall returns to normal levels.

"The short answer is no; we have no evidence that a corn plant that undergoes moderate water stress during the first half of vegetative growth – say, through V10 or so – suffers irreversible loss of potential kernel number or size," says Nafziger.

Many people, however, recall having seen stress symptoms during early vegetative growth and point to this to explain yields that are lower than desired. They often note that the number of kernel rows on the ear was smaller than expected, or smaller than normal for that hybrid.

"It's likely that stress can reduce kernel row number, though it is very difficult to show that this occurred because of early stress," says Nafziger. Seasons that produce low yields almost always have stress during the second half of the season, and separating the effect of earlier and later stress is not possible. Loss of kernel rows due to abortion, or "zippering," is usually due to stress at or after pollination, not during early vegetative growth.

In contrast, corn that undergoes moderate stress only during early vegetative growth often yields very well. In part, this is because ear and tassel growth up through the mid-vegetative stages requires very small amounts of the plant's resources, so modest reductions in plant sugar have little effect. These plant parts are also developing inside the wrapped leaves, which protect them from the effects of inadequate water.

May has been both warmer and drier than normal all over Illinois. While the low rainfall levels continue to be a source of concern, most of the fields where the roots are tapping well into the soil water have reasonably uniform growth and good crop color.

Other benefits of the dry May weather is near-total absence of drowned-out areas of fields and almost none of the excessive nitrogen losses that have followed wet spring weather in recent years. Soil conditions remain conducive to deeper rooting, and this could provide real benefits if dry conditions occur later in the season. The frequencies of some plant diseases that require wet weather to develop have also been reduced.

"On balance, the warm, dry weather has been favorable, and we do not believe that there has been any substantial loss of yield potential in most areas up to now," Nafziger says, though he notes that some of the crop has not been able to establish a good root system yet and remains under stress. "When we reach the point where current soil water supplies will no longer provide water at rates high enough to sustain maximum growth rates, the need for rainfall will become more urgent."