University of Minnesota research show that combine and tractor fires still cause millions of dollars in property losses each year and even more because of lost time and downed crops during the busy harvest season. Fires not only cause huge losses and waste time...they also cause dozens of injuries each year, and occasionally a person is killed because of a farm machinery fire.
There are two keys to preventing a disaster like the one just described: prevention and preparation in case a fire does break out
Machinery Fire Prevention
For a fire to occur, three things must be present: air, a material to burn and a heat source. It's impossible to eliminate air around a farm machine. So, machinery fire prevention focuses both on keeping the machine clean of possible fire-causing materials and eliminating all possible sources of heat that could lead to a fire.
Cleanliness And Maintenance
Begin every harvest season with a clean machine. Pay special attention to the engine and engine compartment, since research indicates that over 75% of all machinery fires start in that area. Use a pressure washer to remove all caked-on grease, oil and crop residue. A clean engine will run cooler, operate more efficiently and greatly reduce your chance for fire.
After starting the season, make sure you frequently blow any dry chaff, leaves and other crop material off the machine with compressed air. Also, clear off any wrapped plant materials on bearings, belts and other moving parts.
Pay close attention to your machine operator's manual and follow all instructions and schedules for lubrication and routine maintenance. If you notice leaking fuel or oil hoses, fittings or metal lines, make sure to replace or repair them immediately.
Eliminate Heat Sources
Combine and tractor fires can be caused by several heat sources. The most common is exhaust system surfaces that contact flammable material. Make sure your exhaust system including the manifold, muffler and turbocharger are in good condition and free of leaks.
When checking your oil and performing other daily maintenance, quickly scan any exposed electrical wiring for damage or signs of deterioration. Replace any worn or malfunctioning electrical component with proper parts from your dealer. If you are blowing fuses, or have a circuit that intermittently cuts out, it's a good sign that there's a short or loose connection in the system. The arcing electrical wires on a farm machine will generate extremely high temperatures.
Also keep an eye out for worn bearings, belts and chains. A badly worn bearing can glow red-hot. Any rubber belt subjected to intense heat from a worn part can burst into flames.
Be Prepared For The Worst
Despite your best intentions and good maintenance, a fire on a combine or tractor can still occur. Your best source of protection for a combine is at least one fully charged 10-lb. ABC dry chemical fire extinguisher. A 5-lb. unit is recommended for tractors. Select only extinguishers with an Underwriter's Laboratory approval. Having two extinguishers on the machine is even better in case one malfunctions or loses pressure.
Keep one mounted in the cab, and one where it can be reached from the ground. Check your extinguishers periodically, paying special attention to the pressure gauge. To function effectively, the gauge must show adequate pressure to expel the powder inside.
Extinguishers should also be checked periodically by someone from your local fire department or insurance company. Any extinguisher that has been even partially discharged must be fully recharged before it's used again. During even a brief discharge, the tiny dry chemical particles will create a small gap in the internal seal of the extinguisher valve. This tiny opening will cause any remaining pressure to leak out in a few hours or days.
What If I Have A Fire?
If a fire does break out on a machine you're operating, quickly shut off the engine, grab your extinguisher, get out and get help. If you forget to grab the extinguisher, don't go back in after it unless the fire is small or confined to an area well away from the cab.
Having a cell phone or two-way radio nearby will help get professional assistance to the field more quickly. Be sure to stay calm and give complete and accurate directions.
Approach any fire with extreme caution. Even a small fire can flare up dramatically as you open doors, hatches or other areas to gain access. These types of fires are especially dangerous when liquid fuels are involved.
If possible, use the extinguisher's flexible hose to shoot the chemical from a safe distance at the base of any flames you see. Continue to blanket flames to allow the fire to cool and prevent a reflash.
Remember that it may not be possible to put out every fire. If it's in a difficult-to-reach area or seems out of control, don't risk the chance of injury or even death. Wait for help to arrive.
Before resuming operation after any fire, make sure to find and correct the cause. It’s always best to have the machine looked at by a qualified equipment mechanic who can also help to prevent future fires by locating parts that need replacement and inspecting other areas that might represent a future fire hazard.
Five research articles with detailed data and fire protection information can be found at: