Livestock producers across Ohio and the Midwest were unable to apply manure this fall and early winter due to saturated field conditions. Most livestock farmers are really pressed for manure storage room. Waiting for frozen ground to apply manure is likely to be their only available option.
Decisions about spreading manure on frozen and snow covered ground are critical to minimize water quality impacts. Now is not the time to shirk on proper application methods. Constant changes in weather are typical of winters in Ohio, which increases the potential for manure to move with surface run-off. Run-off can lead to polluting water resources including streams, waterways and wells. Not only does this impact water quality, but the nutrients are lost and not available for the next year’s crop.
The USDANatural Resources Conservation Service(NRCS) Practice Standard 633, Waste Utilization outlines the best management practice to reduce the potential of manure moving off-site. This practice standard will also help producers recycle nutrients more efficiently reducing the need for commercial fertilizer. Although best management practices can help reduce the risk of pollution, one must keep in mind that the potential for manure run-off increases during winter application. This is why winter application of manure is not recommended and should only be done as a last resort.
When manure is applied on frozen or snow-covered soils, only enough manure should be applied to address storage limitations and only when all of the following criteria are met:
For fields with slopes greater than 6%, manure should be applied in alternating strips 60-200 ft. wide generally on the contour, or in the case of contour strips, on alternating strips at rates identified above. Application rates, and cover and set-back requirements also apply.
Winter application should not be part of a manure management plan and it should only be viewed as a last resort. Remember that if manure application during winter is necessary, preplanning to avoid fields where potential run-off could enter water passages will reduce pollution.
Some states have prohibited manure application on frozen or snow-covered ground but it is still an option with very careful management in Ohio. More information on winter manure application can be located through your local SWCD, NRCS or OSU Extension offices or the USDA-NRCS, Practice Standard 633. Get additional manure management information online.